Fortress Marienberg

  • Originally fortified retreat of the Hallstatt period (about 1000 b.C.).

  • 706: consecration of the Marienkirche.

  • About 1200: foundation of the fortified castle.

  • 1253 - 1719: residence of the prince bishops.

  • 1482: main castle was surrounded by medieval ring-wall with the Scherenberg gate.

  • About 1600: Julius Echter changed the fortress into a Renaissance palace, Echter bastion was built.
    The delightful well-temple above the deep well (104 metres) was built at the same time.

  • After the defeat by Gustav Adolf of Sweden in 1641, the fortress was reconstructed as a Baroque fortification, Princes' garden was laid out.

  • Became Franconian duchy ca. 650
  • 689 The Iro-scottish missionaries Kilian, Kolonat and Totnan were murdered in the duke’s court
  • 704 The name „castellum virteburch“ is recorded for the first time in a document
  • 742 St. Boniface established a bishopric in Würzburg
  • 788 Consecration of the cathedral in presence of Charlemagne
  • 1030 The bishop becomes ruler of the town
  • 1168 Frederic Barbarossa acknowledged the Franconian duchy of the bishops of Würzburg
  • 1525 In the „Peasant’s Revolt“ the town supports the peasant armies, which tried unsuccessfully to storm the Fortress Marienberg
  • 1531 Death of Tilman Riemenschneider, woodcarver, alderman and burgermeister
  • 1576 Foundation of the Juliusspital by prince bishop Julius Echter of Mespel- brunn
  • 1582 Foundation of the university by Julius Echter
  • 1631 Würzburg conquered by Gustav Adolf of Sweden
  • 1720 Foundation of the prince bishops’ palace, designed by Balthasar Neumann
  • 1750 - 1753 Tiepolo paints the palace-frescoes
  • 1802 The high chapter is dissolved, Würzburg becomes part of the Electorate of Bavaria
  • 1805 - 1814 Grand-duchy under Ferdinand of Tuscany
  • 1814 Würzburg is finally allocated to Bavaria
  • 1867 Würzburg loses its characteristic fortification, a park is laid out around town and the boundaries are spread
  • 1895 Röntgen discovers X-rays in Würzburg and is awarded the Nobel-Prize
  • 1945 At the end of World War II Würzburg is almost completely destroyed
  • 1970 A new university is founded at the outskirts of town

Dom St. Kilian

  • Cathedral, significant work of German architecture of the 11th and 12th century, one of the largest Romanesque churches in Germany.
  • Begun in 1040, east towers in 1237.
  • Interior adorned with High-Baroque stuccoworks by Magno (after 1700).
  • 1945: completely destroyed.
  • Re-consecrated in May, 1967.
  • Exterior completely rebuilt.
  • Baroque stuccowork in transept and choir preserved, modern paintings in main-aisle by F. Nagel.
  • Altar, tabernacle and bishop's rostrum by A. Schilling of Basel, 1966-67.
  • New portals by Franconian sculptors 1966-1967.

(UNESCO-World Heritage)

  • Prince bishops' palace, UNESCO-World Heritage, main work of South German Baroque period, one of Europe's most ornate palaces.
  • Built 1720 -1744 according to plans of Balthasar Neumann, assisted by L. v. Hildebrandt of Vienna and M. von Welsch of Mainz.
  • Unique staircase with cantilever cupola and largest ceiling-painting of the world by the Venetian Tiepolo.
  • "White Hall", rich stuccowork by Bossi, "Emperor's Hall", luxurious interior, frescoes by Tiepolo, "Garden Hall", ceiling-paintings by Joh. Zick, "Parade Rooms", adorned 1740-1770 in rich rococo style.
  • "Mirror cabinet", reopened in 1987 after nine years of reconstruction.

Grafeneckart und Rathaus

Originally seat of bishops' administrator, Romanesque tower and impressive hall (Wenzelsaal), 13th century.

Since 1316 used as town hall, extended several times.
Connected is a red building built in 1659 by Preiss and Villinger in late Renaissance style.

Röntgen - Gedächtnisstätte

The laboratory where Wilhelm C. Röntgen
found X-rays is nowadays a memorial hall



You can get more informations from the Wuerzburg Homepage

Letztes Update: 07.10.2011